QUESTION TEXT: Marian Anderson, the famous contralto, did not…
QUESTION TYPE: Sufficient Assumption
CONCLUSION: Marian Anderson did not take success for granted.
REASONING: Anderson had to struggle early in life. Anyone who struggles early must keep a good perspective on the world.
ANALYSIS: The argument is missing a link between struggling early and keeping a good perspective on the world.
If we diagram what we have so far, we get:
Struggle early in life ➞ keep a good perspective on the world
If we say that everyone who keeps a good perspective will not take success for granted then we can get our conclusion:
Struggle early ➞ good perspective ➞ not take success for granted.
- This would disprove the argument. The stimulus argues that Marian Anderson (who succeeded) did not take success for granted.
- CORRECT. We can then say: Struggle Early ➞ good perspective ➞ doesn’t take success for granted.
- This doesn’t tell us how these people deal with success.
- This tells us that struggling early in life is a necessary condition. We need a sufficient condition for not taking success for granted.
- Same as D. This makes a good perspective a necessary condition. The right answer shows that it is a sufficient condition.
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