DISCUSSION: Line 21 gives us one example of the type of universal law that determinist biologists are trying to discover.
- Not so. Determinists might think that this drives biology, but the author of the passage seems to disagree with the determinists.
- What uncertainty? The determinists are laying down a very certain rule. They say all life must struggle to survive.
- The main cause of controversy between the (two) schools of thought is whether there are universal laws for biology. Line 21 just gives us one example of such a law. Its the question of whether universal laws exist that is the main cause of controversy.
- CORRECT. Examples help us understand difficult concepts. Lines 20-25 give us examples to help clarify what determinists believe.
- No. Lines 21 is talking about determinists. They don’t think historical contingency should be part of biological science.
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