QUESTION TEXT: Essayist: Knowledge has been defined as a…
QUESTION TYPE: Method of Reasoning
CONCLUSION: The criticisms of the claim are unfounded.
REASONING: “True Belief formed by a reliable process ➞ Knowledge” is the claim.
Some people argue that even if clairvoyance produced a true belief by a reliable process, we still wouldn’t believe it.
The Essayist agrees that we wouldn’t believe the claims, but argues that it is only because we don’t trust clairvoyance is a reliable process.
But if we believed in clairvoyance then we would also accept that it produced knowledge.
ANALYSIS: This argument makes a good point. The example of clairvoyance just shows that we don’t believe in the reliability of clairvoyance. It can’t disprove anything about a general theory of how knowledge is produced when we believe in a process. That’s because we don’t believe in the process of clairvoyance.
Our disbelief in clairvoyance’s claims might not be because we have a different theory of knowledge.
- CORRECT. Our beliefs about the predictions of clairvoyance are the reason we don’t trust the claims. It isn’t because we have a different theory of knowledge.
- The essayist agrees that we reject the claims of clairvoyance. So it hasn’t allowed us to form knowledge (true beliefs.)
- Same as B. The essayist agrees that we reject the claims of clairvoyance. And the argument didn’t say such claims are wrong.
- The essayist argues for a single definition of knowledge: A true belief formed by a reliable process results in knowledge.
- The argument says that clairvoyance could be a case of knowledge if we believed it, so it can fit the definition.
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