QUESTION TEXT: Graham: The defeat of the world’s chess…
QUESTION TYPE: Point at Issue
ARGUMENTS: Graham says that machines can master anything governed by fixed principles. So, we will eventually create a machine with true intelligence. Chess victories by computers show this is true.
Adelaide says that the computer that won at chess was just an extension of principles designed by humans. It was humans who understood the principles of chess and programmed the computer to win using those principles.
ANALYSIS: For point at issue questions, you have to pick an answer where one person says yes, and the other person says no. Most trap answers are only discussed by one person.
Here, Graham is saying that machines mastered chess. Adelaide is saying instead that machines could do so only because humans mastered chess, and programmed computers with that mastery.
- Neither person mentions which example is best. Maybe they both agree there are better examples! (Adelaide doesn’t even mention fixed principles.)
- Neither person said chess is typical.
- CORRECT. Graham says yes, Adelaide says no.
- Graham says yes. Adelaide doesn’t mention criteria for intelligence.
- Adelaide doesn’t even mention fixed principles! She can’t disagree with this.
As for Graham, it’s unclear if he agrees. There may be a difference between having a machine master an activity and devising a tool to aid in that activity. (aid who, humans?)
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