Rule substitution questions seem hard, but what you must remember is that there aren’t that many ways to achieve an effect. To do this type of question, you should figure out the full effects of the rule. We’re trying to replace the rule that “The necklace and the jar are both older than the tureen”.
But, by looking at the main diagram, we can see that there are other effects. Here is the main diagram again:
So it’s not just N and J that must be before H; it’s also F.
What about the others? Both H and P could either be before or after T.
So, look for an answer that shows awareness of these facts. D is CORRECT. It says that only H and P could go after T. That therefore forces J and N before T, even without the rule.
All of the wrong answers are wrong because they:
- Forbid things that should be allowed, or
- Allow things that should be forbidden.
The substituted rules must create scenarios that obey all other rules. This is a helpful thing to keep in mind in order to eliminate wrong answers.
- A: This contradicts the rules. T is supposed be after F.
- B: This doesn’t mention the jar, so this rule allows J to come after H.
- C: This rule allows both J and N to go after T!
- E: This says nothing about where J and N are placed. So they could both go after T.
So, A forbids something that should be allowed, and B, C and E allow things that should be forbidden.
The “if and only if” rules are especially poor candidates. You generally can’t replace an ordering rule with an “if and only if” rule.
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