QUESTION TEXT: Although large cities are generally more polluted…
QUESTION TYPE: Role in Argument
CONCLUSION: Increasing population in cities may decrease nationwide pollution.
REASONING: City dwellers use mass transport and live in more efficient homes. Thus, people in cities produce less pollution per capita.
ANALYSIS: To find the conclusion, ask yourself “what are they trying to tell me?”. Everything in this argument supports the claim that moving people to cities will reduce pollution.
Conclusion words are useful, but can be misleading. The final sentence uses the word “thus”. The final sentence is a conclusion, but it’s an intermediate conclusion. The fact that city dwellers produce less pollution per capita supports the first sentence: we might decrease pollution by moving people to cities.
Note that the first sentence also has conclusion indicators. “Although….may” indicates the author’s opinion, which is usually the conclusion.
- The LSAT draws a line between what should be and what is. This question only talks about what is. This answer talks about what “should” happen. We don’t know whether people should move to cities. Pollution is not the only factor.
- Reread the argument carefully. It did not say that cities aren’t polluted. NYC is definitely more polluted than Maine. But, per capita, the people in cities produce less pollution.
- The first sentence is not useless fluff. Notice that it says “although….may actually”. Those words indicate the first sentence is the author’s opinion, and therefore a conclusion.
- The first sentence starts with “although”. That word indicates that the second part of a sentence will be in contrast to the first part.
- CORRECT. Ask yourself “why is the author telling us this?” Everything supports the first sentence. The words “although….may actually” indicate that the first sentence is the author’s opinion. The rest of the argument supports this opinion.
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