QUESTION TEXT: Young people believe efforts to reduce…
QUESTION TYPE: Necessary Assumption
CONCLUSION: We should try to keep children motivated by helping them believe better futures are possible.
REASONING: Young people believe it’s impossible to reduce pollution, poverty and war. People lose motivation to work on things they think are impossible.
ANALYSIS: This is a necessary assumption question. I found this one difficult to prephrase.
If you don’t know what the answer is going to be, you should do three things:
- Look carefully at the conclusion and reasoning so that you know how they fit together. This lets you spot weak points.
- See which answers mention a couple of terms from the argument.
- Negate those answers to see if they lead to the conclusion.
Now that I’ve reviewed the question, I realized that the author never said that belief in a better future will lead to motivation. They just assumed it would, which is why B is the answer. But in timed conditions, the negation test let me figure that out even when I couldn’t predict the answer.
- This gets things backwards. The author said we should make people believe in a better future in order to motivate them. The reverse assumption isn’t necessary.
- CORRECT. The negation wrecks the argument.
Negation: Letting people believe in a better future will not improve their motivation.
- This is a value judgment. The stimulus was about facts: will young people lose motivation, or will they not lose motivation?
- This isn’t necessary. The author only wants young people to try. It would be nice if they succeed in ending problems, but the main thing is to make an effort.
- It doesn’t matter why current problems exist. The stimulus is only about whether we can motivate youth now.
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