QUESTION TYPE: Complete the Argument
CONCLUSION: Shared moral attitudes might allow the creation of a variety of different moral codes based on those attitudes.
REASONING: Some moral attitudes are shared across all cultures. And as an analogy, some shared tastes end up leading to different cuisines across cultures.
ANALYSIS: Whenever an argument uses an analogy, you need to ask what the analogy shows, and what would be a parallel situation in the original argument. Here, the underling principle is:
“Something shared across cultures can be expressed differently.”
Shared tastes can be expressed as different cuisines. Therefore, shared moral values can be expressed as different moral codes. This discredits the argument that shared moral codes necessarily indicate a lack of universal values.
- This might be a true statement, but it’s not where the argument was leading.
- Not quite. The issue is not whether moral codes resemble each other. Instead, it’s whether there are underlying moral values that produce the moral codes.
- CORRECT. This matches. Shared tastes = shared moral values. Different cuisines = variety of moral codes.
- The author wasn’t claiming this. Things as complex as moral codes might be beyond full understanding, yet the author could still point to certain shared moral values that seem to underlie all moral codes.
- The author’s point is that certain moral codes are shared across all cultures! So they’re going to argue that these moral values can be adapted (changed) for different cultures.
Their point was that shared moral values may be expressed somewhat differently in different moral codes, but there is underlying agreement about certain values, such as objection to unfairness.
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