DISCUSSION: The second paragraph shows how pollen can be useful (pollen analysis lets us know which types of plants were grown in an area).
The final paragraph mentions the limits of pollen analysis (sometimes, species can’t be distinguished).
- The final paragraph is in contrast with the second: paragraph 5 tells us ways in which pollen analysis is limited.
- This is a trap. Paragraph 5 is not saying “Don’t use pollen analysis until it can identify madder”.
Instead, it’s saying “Use pollen analysis, but be careful: it won’t help identify madder.”
- CORRECT. See the analysis above. “Qualifies” means to make a statement less absolute.
So if I say “Use logic, but remember it may not work in emotional situations”, then I’m “qualifying” the idea that you should use logic. That’s exactly what paragraph 5 does: It tells us of some situations where pollen analysis doesn’t work.
- Nonsense. Paragraph 2 is the author’s view. The use of “for example” at the start of paragraph 3 makes clear that all of paragraph 2 was the author’s opinion.
- No. The final paragraph is telling us when not to use the method described in the second paragraph.