QUESTION TYPE: Flawed Parallel Reasoning
CONCLUSION: Most parking citations are issued to students.
REASONING: In university towns, more parking citations are issued during the school year.
ANALYSIS: This is a terrible argument. It doesn’t tell us how many extra citations are earned by students. It could be a very small number. Most students don’t have cars.
E.g. Suppose typical parking citations are 200 per month and they are 220 per month when the students are there. That hardly supports the idea that “most” citations go to students.
The structure is the following: more of event Y happens when X is present. So X must account for most cases of event Y.
- This is close but not quite the same. It doesn’t say sales go up when more children are present. It says sales go up when there is a higher ratio of children. Very similar structure, but slightly different. E is better. This answer also incorrectly switches from snacks in general to popcorn.
- This is a bad argument, but only because some plants are naturally more green than others. It doesn’t compare two situations or claim that one plant gets most of the sunlight.
- This isn’t a good argument, but only because studying is not enough to make someone “studious.” Studious means someone who studies quite a lot, whereas most students may just study a bit. This is a different error from the stimulus: if studying meant studious then this would be a good argument.
- This is a bad argument. It’s assuming that variety equals quantity. But this doesn’t make an error with most.
- CORRECT. Here we go. When X (other people’s children) are present then more of Y (snacks being given out.) happens. That does not mean that most snacks go to other people’s children. One’s own children probably eat most of the snacks, because they are at home most often.
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