QUESTION TYPE: Principle
To receive the award (Franklin):
Exemplary records AND beyond call AND saved life ➞ receive award
To be sure of not receiving an award (Penn):
Exemplary record ➞ Award
ANALYSIS: You must be very precise on principle questions. You’re looking for a very specific outcome. Figure the conditions that will guarantee that outcome for Franklin and Penn, then look for the answer that has those conditions.
Ruthlessly eliminate answers that are missing the conditions. For example, I first eliminated any answer that didn’t say Penn lacked an exemplary record. That’s the only way to disqualify Penn from an award.
- CORRECT. Yup. They both went beyond what could reasonably be expected and saved someone’s life. That is a sufficient condition for receiving an award if you have an exemplary record. So this gets an award for Franklin. Penn is denied an award because an exemplary record is a necessary condition.
- This doesn’t let us deny the award to Penn, because he has an exemplary record.
- If Franklin doesn’t have an exemplary record then she can’t get an award.
- We don’t know if either of them have exemplary records. So it’s impossible to know whether we can give Franklin an award or deny one to Penn.
- If Penn has an exemplary record, we can’t be sure it’s correct to deny him an award. And we’re not told if Franklin saved a life on those same occasions when she went above and beyond what was reasonably expected of her.
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