DISCUSSION: The first paragraph tells us that the philosophers think that science should follow universal laws. The philosophers like physics. This implies that the philosophers think the laws of physics are correct universal laws.
- The laws of history are imprecise and uncertain. Everything depends on circumstance. Physics is different: the laws are universal.
- The first few lines tell us that physics is preferred because it is certain.
- CORRECT. Lines 36-41 tell us that this is true. The laws of planetary motion apply not only to all existing planets, but to all planets that could exist.
- ‘Particular’ is the opposite of universal, and the laws of physics are universal. (Line 7)
- The laws of physics are contrasted with things that rely on historical contingency in lines 1-7.
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