DISCUSSION: Passage A writes from the voice of authority. There are no differing viewpoints mentioned in passage A. The author writes as though they’re describing the indisputable truth.
Passage B shows disagreement. The author mentions Grice and Maritain, but disagrees with them in lines 53-56.
- Passage B didn’t say science is incapable of answering the question of animal communication. The author just thought a couple of philosophers were wrong.
Science as a whole can be correct even if individual scientists make mistakes. Indeed, mistakes are almost required.
- CORRECT. See the discussion above. Passage A has no disagreement. In passage B, the author completely disagrees with Maritain.
- I can’t see how this is supported. Passage B is argumentative, and the author disagrees with other scholars. They don’t show any particular willingness to believe conflicting opinions. Whereas lines 9-11 in passage A admit that some animals may be able to attribute mental states.
- Both passages cite research. Passage B doesn’t seem any more supportive of continued research than passage A does.
- Nonsense. In paragraph 4 the author of passage B says that emerging research calls into question several assumptions. The author is definitely committing to a position.
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