DISCUSSION: The first paragraph describes Marcuse’s theory of advertising.
It’s always a good idea to reread/skim the relevant paragraph before answering this type of question. This takes a few seconds, but you’ll eliminate wrong answers much faster.
- What political context? The passage doesn’t describe any political systems.
- If this answer were right, then we’d be able to find something in paragraph 1 that says how advertising creates false needs. The first paragraph says Marcuse thinks advertising creates false needs, but Marcuse doesn’t say how advertising does this in paragraph 1.
- The first paragraph doesn’t say anything like this! The word psychology doesn’t even appear, and the paragraph doesn’t evaluate the techniques advertising uses.
- The first paragraph is only talking about “some” critics of advertising: those that agree with Marcuse. We have no idea if they’re the dominant critics of advertising.
- CORRECT. The first paragraph has two parts. Lines 4-15 describe Marcuse’s theory of false needs. Lines 1-4 say some critics think this theory is the major explanation of advertising’s power. In this answer, that corresponds to “Marcusian views” and “role in certain criticisms of advertising”.
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